Lit. 7, No. 90–98.

The polycarbonate sheet was cut with scissors to have a flat surface at the top and a curved surface at the bottom.

[11][12] This situation is sometimes observed when hardened armor-piercing bullet cores fail to completely penetrate steel plate.

Some are elongated, like oval shaped footballs.

The horizontal speed at the bottom of the ball depends on how fast the ball is spinning, as well as on the horizontal speed of the centre of mass of the ball.


The movie is not very entertaining when viewed in real time. Gold, R.E. Note also that the bottom of the spring starts falling well AFTER the top is released!

11, No. The ground surface is a frequent source of ricochets. You can work out the bounce speed, spin and angle yourself from this film. The following diagram illustrates the problem. The hoop film here helps to answer that question. Frangible bullets or lead core varmint hunting bullets are more susceptible to collision damage, and produce smaller ricochet fragments. The force varies in a sinusoidal manner.

Click the photo to see a fascinating series of bounces of a spinning superball, filmed in slow motion.

Some bullets are fired to intentionally ricochet, just as in ricochets of some ball games like basketball and pool.

16, No.

Ricochet mass may be similarly close to original bullet mass for full metal jacket bullets or green bullets replacing soft lead with solid copper or a steel core. The ball retraces its incident path when it bounces on the right hand side of the table. Nennstiel, R., "Study of Bullet Ricochet on a Water Surface," AFTE Journal, Vol. The possibility of ricochet is one of the reasons for the common firearms safety rule "Never shoot at a flat, hard surface." Ricochets may be similarly deflected in the direction of rotation of the side of a spin-stabilized bullet contacting a resistant surface.

If one part of a ball stops rotating while the rest of the ball continues to rotate, what then happens to the ball? [4], Sectional density, or mass of the bullet divided by the frontal area of the bullet, increases penetration of resistant surfaces. If a ball is incident at a certain speed and angle on a surface, then how fast does it bounce, at what angle, and with how much spin?

In addition, F exerts a torque on the ball that changes its rotation speed. When two steel balls collide, kinetic energy is conserved even if the balls are of different diameter. The second is that the ball first leans forward in frames 1 and 2, due to its high initial speed, then it leans backwards in frame 4.

[2] Ricochets are a hazard of shooting because, for as long as they retain sufficient velocity, ricocheting bullets or bullet fragments may cause collateral damage to animals, objects, or even the person who fired the shot.

When two steel balls collide, kinetic energy is conserved even if the balls are of different diameter. F is then determined by elastic distortion of the ball in a direction parallel to the surface, and acts as a shear force. 27, No.

The possibility of ricochet is one of the reasons for the common firearms safety rule "Never shoot at a flat, hard surface.

The ratio of the vertical speed after the bounce to that before the bounce is called the COR (Coefficient of Restitution). Buckshot and shotgun slugs have similarly high ricochet probability, but ricochet range of smaller shot is lower than intact rifle or handgun bullet ricochets.

506–512. Examples of the former include a ball bouncing off the ground or a bat; examples of the latter include a beam of electrons used to produce a picture, or the relativistic bending of light due to gravity. Resistance to penetration can be evaluated as the sectional density of the target material along the axis of bullet movement in front of the bullet. Note how clay sticks to the ball and is then spun off. A ricochet (/ˈrɪkəʃeɪ/ RIK-ə-shay; French: [ʁikɔʃɛ]) is a rebound, bounce, or skip off a surface, particularly in the case of a projectile. [13] Buckshot and subsonic bullets may be similarly reflected from rubber vehicle tires.[14].

Most ricochets are caused by accident and while the force of the deflection decelerates the projectile, it can still be energetic and almost as dangerous as before the deflection. 2. and bounce something off Fig. [6] Though it may not be intuitive, bullets easily ricochet off water;[7][8] compare stone skipping. Elongated, spin-stabilized bullets fired from rifled firearms have greater sectional density than spherical bullets of the same diameter made from the same material; and elongated rifle cartridge bullets have greater sectional density than short bullets of the same diameter handgun cartridges. Bullet traps at indoor shooting ranges often include durable steel plates to deflect bullets downward into a material intended to stop and capture the bullets. to see a fascinating series of bounces of a spinning superball, filmed in slow motion.

The hoop slides then grips before bouncing, in the same but in a much more obvious manner than a ball. A golf ball that spins faster will travel further. We can also define a horizontal COR in an analogous way, in terms of the horizontal speed of the contact point at the bottom of the ball. 699–709. 3, July 1984, pp.

"Bullet Ricochet: A Comprehensive Review", "The Box O' Truth #7 - The Sands O' Truth", "Projectile Ricochet from Wooden Targets", "Testing The Army's M855A1 Standard Ball Cartridge", "Bullet Trap Feasibility Assessment and Implementation Plan", "Dynamics of the Oblique Impact and Ricochet of Nondeforming Spheres Against Thin Plates", "Safety Zones for Recreational Target Shooting", "Sydney siege: Counter-terrorism specialist questions weapons used by police, says they may have contributed to death of hostage Katrina Dawson", "Martin Place siege victim Katrina Dawson struck by a police bullet, investigations show", .50 Cal Ricochet onto Shooter's Ear Muffs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ricochet&oldid=975489451, Articles with self-published sources from January 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [10] In an extreme case, a strong, cohesive bullet striking a nearly perpendicular elastic surface may ricochet directly back at the shooter.

She bounced the ball off the wall, turned, and tossed it to Wally. Metallic foil will be more easily penetrated than metal ingots, and sectional density of sheet metal increases as orientation of the sheet diverges from perpendicular to, toward parallel with, the bullet path.

p 583 - 587, July 2007 for an explanation. You need to advance one frame at a time to see the movement.

The stress is obviously concentrated in the contact region but extends around the edge of the sheet as the compression force increases due to bending of the polycarbonate sheet.

The plus sign on the pencil marks its centre of mass and the vertical white line in the middle of the film is a plumbob.



[5] Dense objects tend to prevail in collisions with less dense objects; so dense bullets tend to penetrate less dense materials, and dense materials tend to deflect light bullets.

When a steel ball bounces,  a compression wave travels up and down the ball about 15 times before the ball bounces. The hoop behaves as a system of inter-connected particles rather than as a rigid object. The same effect occurs with spherical balls. The difference between ball and spring collisions is described in more detail. This page was last edited on 28 August 2020, at 20:15.

Lower initial mass gives small fragment ricochets less damage potential, and distance of travel is reduced by more rapid loss of velocity from air resistance. If the ball slides throughout the bounce then F/N = coefficient of sliding friction. The same effect occurs with tennis strings.

The photos were taken in room light with a sheet of white cardboard at the rear to reflect light through the system.

The movie is played back at 30 fps (in slow motion).

The angle shown in each frame is the change in rotation angle from one frame to the next. It is also obvious, especially in bounce2, that the normal reaction force does not act through the centre of mass and therefore exerts a strong torque on the hoop, reducing the spin rate. The shooter is at the apex of the cone, and the cone is symmetrical around the intended bullet path. Normally we don't think about the physics of bouncing balls too much as it's fairly obvious what is happening – the ball basically rebounds off a surface at a speed proportional to how fast it is thrown. They are subject to the same ground reaction and friction forces as any other ball, but the normal reaction force rarely acts through the centre of mass of the ball.
Or will the bottom end fall first? Ricochets can … A scientific paper on this subject, including the results of 200 different bounces at various angles and spins, can be downloaded as a 700 kb pdf file. The ball grips the table during each bounce and reverses both its direction of motion and the spin direction.

62, 1970, pp.

Baseball bounce  (At 1000 f/s)     Tennis ball bounce (At 1000 f/s).

The photo above shows the footprint of a high speed rubber ball incident from the left on chalk on a blackboard. The bounce is also shown in the diagram below. The tennis ball then bounces with about 16 times more energy, by bouncing off the basketball, than it does by bouncing directly off the floor.

Four different strings showing string movement: String1  String2  String3  String4. "[1] Ricochets can occur with any caliber, and short or round ricocheting bullets may not produce the audible whine caused by tumbling irregular shapes. A similar thing happens when a player strikes a ball with a bat or club or racquet. A ricochet is a rebound, bounce, or skip off a surface, particularly in the case of a projectile. Hartline, P., Abraham, G. and Rowe, W.F., "A Study of Shotgun Ricochet from Steel Surfaces," Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. There is a lot of interesting physics in both of these events. Jordan, G.E., Bratton, D.D., Donahue, H.C.H.

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